Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 11 30;7(11):e981. Epub 2019 Sep 30.
SICODIC, Ciudad de México, México.
Background: Fabry disease (FD) has an extensive phenotypic expression associated with GLA gene variants. The GLA gene variant c.352C>T/p.Arg118Cys was considered with uncertain pathogenicity because of the finding of high residual alpha-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) enzyme activity, the absence of Mendelian segregation with an FD phenotype with many individuals remaining asymptomatic at old ages and the lack of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) deposits in tissues. Gb3 deposits are found in kidneys before the progression to overt microalbuminuria and decreased glomerular filtration.
Methods: We describe a family with c.352C>T/p.Arg118Cys variant and pathognomonic signs of FD renal damage in masculine children.
Results: The proband died of end-stage renal failure and we analyzed GLA gene in his offspring and found the variant in all daughters and five of seven grandchildren. In patients who we measure plasma and urinary Gb3, α-Gal A enzyme activity, and plasma globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3), these were normal or almost normal. A kidney biopsy was performed in two boys and one girl with normal renal function and characteristic signs of FD as enlarged and vacuolated epithelial cells, myelin figures, myelin-like figures, lamellated structures in podocytes and endothelial cells, were found in boys. These boys received agalsidase beta 1 mg/kg IV infusion every other week to prevent further renal damage.
Conclusion: This is the first report that shows a link between FD renal Gb3 deposits and c.352C>T/p.Arg118Cys variant, supporting pathogenicity of a variant considered until now with uncertain pathogenicity.