Neuro Oncol 2019 Oct;21(10):1226-1238
Division of Oncology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
The field of cancer immunotherapy has progressed at an accelerated rate over the past decade. Pediatric brain tumors thus far have presented a formidable challenge for immunotherapy development, given their typically low mutational burden, location behind the blood-brain barrier in a unique tumor microenvironment, and intratumoral heterogeneity. Despite these challenges, recent developments in the field have resulted in exciting preclinical evidence for various immunotherapies and multiple clinical trials. This work reviews the history and advances in active immunotherapy, checkpoint blockade, and adoptive T-cell therapy for pediatric brain tumors, including ongoing clinical trials.