S D Med 2019 May;72(5):214-216
Department of Family Medicine, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
Cirrhosis resulting from autoimmune hepatitis is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A common treatment for autoimmune hepatitis, azathioprine, is also associated with the development of many other cancers, predominantly lymphomas. The strongest association is seen for post-transplant lymphoma and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients; there is also an association with a variety of cutaneous malignancies. A relationship between azathioprine and sarcoma has not been demonstrated, though there have been sporadic case reports. We report here the development of leiomyosarcoma in a patient who was treated with azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis without cirrhosis.
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