The oropharyngeal microbiome is a primary source of lung microbiota, contributes to lower respiratory infection, and is also a driver of oral health. We sought to understand oropharyngeal microbial communities in advanced lung disease, community dynamics after lung transplantation, and ecological features of dysbiosis. Oropharyngeal wash samples were obtained from individuals with end-stage disease awaiting transplantation ( = 22) and longitudinally from individuals at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after transplantation ( = 33), along with healthy control subjects ( = 14). Bacterial 16S and fungal internal transcribed spacer rRNA regions were deep-sequenced, and bacterial community respiratory patterns were imputed from taxonomic composition. Healthy subjects' oropharyngeal microbiomes showed a gradient of community types reflecting relative enrichment of strictly anaerobic, aerobic, or facultative anaerobic bacteria. Patients with end-stage lung disease showed severe dysbiosis by both taxonomic composition and respiration phenotypes, with reduced richness and diversity, increased facultative and decreased aerobic bacteria, and absence of communities characterized by obligate aerobes. In patients at 6 weeks and 3 months post-transplant, richness and diversity were intermediate between healthy and pretransplant subjects, with near-normal distribution of community types. However, by 6 months post-transplant, oropharyngeal wash resembled the low-diversity facultative-dominated profile of pretransplant subjects. Community ecotype correlated with abundance. End-stage lung disease is associated with marked upper respiratory tract dysbiosis involving both community structure and respiratory metabolism profiles of constituent bacteria. Dynamic changes occur after lung transplantation, with partial normalization early but later appearance of severe dysbiosis similar to pretransplant patients. Aberrant oropharyngeal communities may predispose to abnormal lung microbiota and infection risk both in advanced lung disease and after transplantation.