OBM Transplant 2018 30;2(4). Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1690, USA.
Background: The long term clinical significance of respiratory infections after lung transplantation remains uncertain.
Methods: In this retrospective single-center cohort study of 441 lung transplant recipients, we formally evaluate the association between respiratory infection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). We furthermore hypothesized that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) CXCL9 concentrations are augmented during respiratory infections, and that episodes of infection with elevated BALF CXCL9 are associated with greater CLAD risk.
Results: In univariable and multivariable models adjusted for other histopathologic injury patterns, respiratory infection, regardless of the causative organism, was a strong predictor of CLAD development (adjusted HR 1.8 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Elevated BALF CXCL9 concentrations during respiratory infections markedly increased CLAD risk in a dose-response manner. An episode of respiratory infection with CXCL9 concentrations greater than the 25, 50, and 75 percentile had adjusted HRs for CLAD of 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-2.8), 2.4 (95% CI 1.4-4.0) and 4.4 (95% CI 2.4-8.0), respectively.
Conclusions: Thus, we demonstrate that respiratory infections, regardless of the causative organism, are strong predictors of CLAD development. We furthermore demonstrate for the first time, the prognostic importance of BALF CXCL9 concentrations during respiratory infections on the risk of subsequent CLAD development.