Effect of READ1 on latent profiles of reading disorder and comorbid attention and language impairment subtypes.

Child Neuropsychol 2019 Aug 14:1-25. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

e Department of Child and Youth Studies, Brock University , St. Catharines , Ontario , Canada.

Recent studies of co-occurring reading disorder (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and co-occurring RD and language impairment (LI), support a core disability plus co-occurrence model focused on language and attention. Genetic factors have been associated with poor reading performance. However, little is known about whether different genetic variants independently contribute to RD co-occurrence subtypes. We aimed to identify subgroups of struggling readers using a latent profile analysis (LPA) in a sample of 1,432 Hispanic American and African American youth. RD classes were then tested for association with variants of READ1, a regulatory element within the candidate RD risk gene, . Six groups were identified in the LPA using RD designation as a known-class variable. The three RD classes identified groups of subjects with neurocognitive profiles representing RD+ADHD, specific phonological deficit RD, and RD+LI. Genetic associations across RD subtypes were investigated against functional groupings of READ1. The RU1-1 group of READ1 alleles was associated with RD cases that were marked by deficits in both processing speed and attention (RD+ADHD). The microdeletion that encompasses READ1 was associated with RD cases showing a phonological deficit RD profile. These findings provide evidence for differential genetic contribution to RD subtypes, and that previously implicated genetic variants for RD may share an underlying genetic architecture across population groups for reading disorder.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2019.1648642DOI Listing
August 2019
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American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 2004

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European Journal of Human Genetics : EJHG 2016

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