Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019 Aug;33(8):953-959
Center for Joint Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, P.R.China.
Objective: To explore the gait trajectory characteristics of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) assisted by three-dimensional (3D) printing navigation template.
Methods: Twenty female patients (20 knees) with knee osteoarthritis who were treated with TKA assisted by 3D printing navigation template between February 2017 and February 2018 were selected as the 3D printing group. The patients were 50-69 years old, with an average age of 57.2 years. The disease duration was 4-7 years, with an average of 5.6 years. The osteoarthritis was classified as Kellgren-Lawrence Ⅲ level in 5 cases and Ⅳ level in 15 cases. The preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) was (170.8±5.6)°. All patients were varus deformity. According to age and affected side, 20 healthy female volunteers were selected as the control group. The volunteers were 51-70 years old, with an average age of 56.7 years. Preoperative HKA was (178.8±0.6)°. There was significant difference in HKA between the two groups ( >0.05). The HKA, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of the 3D printing group before and after operation were compared. At 6 months after operation, the gait trajectory characteristics of 3D printing group and control group were analyzed by Vicon gait capture system. The kinematics parameters included velocity, cadence, stride length, maximum knee flexion angle (stance), minimum knee flexion angle (stance), maximum knee flexion angle (swing), mean hip rotation angle (stance), mean ankle rotation angle (stance).
Results: The incisions of 3D printing group healed by first intention, with no complications. All patients were followed up 7-12 months (mean, 9.0 months). The WOMAC and VAS scores at 6 months after operation were significant lower than those before operation ( <0.05). The HKA was (178.8±0.8)° at 4 weeks after operation and the difference was significant when compared with that before operation ( =39.203, =0.000). The position of the prosthesis was good. The femoral posterior condyle osteotomy line, surgical transepicondylar axis, and patella transverse line were parallel, varus deformity was corrected, and lower limb alignment was restored to neutral position. Gait analysis at 6 months after operation showed that the differences in all kinematics parameters between the two groups were significant ( <0.05).
Conclusion: Assisted by 3D printing navigation template, TKA can alleviate pain symptoms and correct deformity, with satisfactory early effectiveness. Compared with healthy people, the early postoperative gait of the patients were characterized by decreasing velocity, cadence, stride length, knee flexion range, and increasing compensatory hip and ankle rotation range.