Department of Neurosurgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, WC1N 3JH, UK.
Purpose Of Review: This review discusses the evidence base behind current and emerging strategies of management of intracranial and spinal ependymomas in children, with a particular focus on aspects of surgical techniques, challenges and complications.
Recent Findings: The cornerstone of management remains maximal safe resective surgery, which has repeatedly been shown to correlate with improved survival. This is followed by focal conformal radiotherapy, although good results using proton beam therapy, with the potential for diminished side effects, are emerging. The role of chemotherapy remains largely unproven for paediatric ependymoma. Despite optimal management strategies, many children with ependymoma suffer from tumour recurrence. The standard of care for paediatric ependymoma comprises surgery and radiotherapy. Results of ongoing clinical trials will help shape its management in order to leverage our increasingly sophisticated understanding of the genetic drivers behind these tumours into survival benefit for this challenging group of patients.