Hum Mutat 2019 12 26;40(12):2197-2220. Epub 2019 Aug 26.
Division of Genomic Diagnostics, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and The Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease with a known molecular etiology of dysfunctional Notch signaling caused primarily by pathogenic variants in JAGGED1 (JAG1), but also by variants in NOTCH2. The majority of JAG1 variants result in loss of function, however disease has also been attributed to lesser understood missense variants. Conversely, the majority of NOTCH2 variants are missense, though fewer of these variants have been described. In addition, there is a small group of patients with a clear clinical phenotype in the absence of a pathogenic variant. Here, we catalog our single-center study, which includes 401 probands and 111 affected family members amassed over a 27-year period, to provide updated mutation frequencies in JAG1 and NOTCH2 as well as functional validation of nine missense variants. Combining our cohort of 86 novel JAG1 and three novel NOTCH2 variants with previously published data (totaling 713 variants), we present the most comprehensive pathogenic variant overview for Alagille syndrome. Using this data set, we developed new guidance to help with the classification of JAG1 missense variants. Finally, we report clinically consistent cases for which a molecular etiology has not been identified and discuss the potential for next generation sequencing methodologies in novel variant discovery.