Gynecol Oncol 2019 09 17;154(3):571-576. Epub 2019 Jul 17.
Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
Objective: In vulvar cancer (VSCC), the course of disease with regard to localization of recurrence and relation of different recurrence sites is poorly described.
Methods: The AGO CaRE-1 study is a retrospective survey of treatment patterns and prognostic factors in vulvar cancer. Patients (pts) with primary VSCC, FIGO stage ≥1B treated in Germany from 1998 to 2008 were included in a centralized database (n = 1618). In the current subgroup analysis, different sites of primary recurrence and their impact on disease course and survival were analyzed using multistate and competing risks methods.
Results: 1249 pts with surgical groin staging and known lymph-node status (35.8% N+) were included in the analysis. 360 pts (28.8%) developed disease recurrence; thereof 193 (53.6%) at the vulva only, with a cumulative incidence of 12.6% after 2 years. Generally, prognosis after disease depended on recurrence site: Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval) to die for pts with compared to without recurrence at the same time: vulvar only: 5.9 (4.3-8.2); groins only: 6.0 (3.0-10.2); vulvar and groins: 14.1 (7.6-26.4); pelvic/distant: 21.2 (15.3-29.4). Fifty-eight (30.1%) pts with local recurrence developed second recurrence. 2-year mortality after any recurrence was 56.3%. After vulvar recurrence pts had a 2-year and 5-year overall survival rate of 82.2% and 66.9%.
Conclusions: Prognosis after recurrence is highly depending on recurrence site. Pts with isolated vulvar recurrence have an impaired prognosis as many affected pts develop second recurrences.