Trends Genet 2019 09 6;35(9):658-671. Epub 2019 Jul 6.
Department of Surgery/Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
The SRY-related (SOX) transcription factor family pivotally contributes to determining cell fate and identity in many lineages. Since the original discovery that SRY deletions cause sex reversal, mutations in half of the 20 human SOX genes have been associated with rare congenital disorders, henceforward called SOXopathies. Mutations are generally de novo, heterozygous, and inactivating, revealing gene haploinsufficiency, but other types, including duplications, have been reported too. Missense variants primarily target the HMG domain, the SOX hallmark that mediates DNA binding and bending, nuclear trafficking, and protein-protein interactions. We here review key clinical and molecular features of SOXopathies and discuss the prospect that the disease family likely involves more SOX genes and larger clinical and genetic spectrums than currently appreciated.