PLoS One 2019 21;14(6):e0218684. Epub 2019 Jun 21.
Diaverum Medical Scientific Office, Lund, Sweden.
Background: Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for oral diseases, which may be associated with premature death. We evaluated the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality associated with oral mucosal lesions in adults with kidney failure treated with long-term haemodialysis.
Methods: Oral mucosal lesions (herpes, ulceration, neoformation, white lesion, red lesion, oral candidiasis, geographical tongue, petechial lesions, and fissured tongue) were evaluated within the Oral Diseases in Haemodialysis (ORAL-D) study, a multinational cohort study of 4726 haemodialysis adults. We conducted cox regression analyses adjusted for demographic and clinical variables to evaluate the association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Results: Overall, 4205 adults (mean age 61.6 ± 15.6 years) underwent oral mucosal examination with 40% affected by at least one lesion. The prevalence of oral lesions was (in order of frequency): oral herpes 0.5%, mucosal ulceration 1.7%, neoformation 2.0%, white lesion 3.5%, red lesion 4.0%, oral candidiasis 4.6%, geographical tongue 4.9%, petechial lesions 7.9%, and fissured tongue 10.7%. During median follow-up of 3.5 years, 2114 patients died (1013 due to cardiovascular disease). No association was observed between any individual oral lesion and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality when adjusted for comorbidities, except for oral candidiasis, which was associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.86) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.46).
Conclusion: Oral mucosal lesions are prevalent in haemodialysis patients. Oral candidiasis appears to be a risk factor for death due to cardiovascular diseases.