ACS Nano 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.
Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States.
While offering high-precision control of neural circuits, optogenetics is hampered by the necessity to implant fiber-optic waveguides in order to deliver photons to genetically engineered light-gated neurons in the brain. Unlike laser light, X-rays freely pass biological barriers. Here we show that radioluminescent Gd(WO):Eu nanoparticles, which absorb external X-rays energy and then downconvert it into optical photons with wavelengths of ∼610 nm, can be used for the transcranial stimulation of cortical neurons expressing red-shifted, ∼590-630 nm, channelrhodopsin ReaChR, thereby promoting optogenetic neural control to the practical implementation of minimally invasive wireless deep brain stimulation. Read More