Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 Sep 7;181:612-622. Epub 2019 Jun 7.
Department of Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 38453, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
Nanoemulsion-based synthesis has been introduced to enhance the bioavailability of natural compounds at target sites for their various biomedical applications. In this study, we synthesized carvacrol nanoemulsion (CN) an oil-in-water (O/W) as a nano-emulsion vehicle system by using ultrasonication emulsification for anti-angiogenesis therapy formulated by combining MCT, lecithin, and polysorbate 80 at the O/W interface called carvacrol encapsulated nanoemulsion (CEN). The diameter of CEN determined by TEM analysis was 105.32 nm. The hydrodynamic droplet size was 101.0 nm with a -39.38-mV zeta potential. The stability of the synthesized CEN was approved till 100 days without any change in diameter size distribution and encapsulation efficiency. We evaluated the role of CEN on angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells both in vitro and in vivo and observed that it reduced the growth and MMP levels of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to CEN decreased the activation of MAPK p38 as well as ERK. Moreover, we found that CEN reduced the expression of VEGF and CD31 in A549 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our in-silico study also indicated the binding of carvacrol to COX-2 and VEGF at the active and allosteric sites of CD31 with low binding energy. Overall, CEN induced anti-angiogenic effects in A549 cells in vitro, in silico, and in vivo, thereby establishing its potential as targeted drug delivery vehicle against angiogenesis.