Childs Nerv Syst 2019 Jun 4. Epub 2019 Jun 4.
Department of Neurosurgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.
Purpose: Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage (SICH) in children, although uncommon, is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Paediatric data is however limited.
Material And Methods: Case records of 105 children with SICH, > 1 month to 12 years, admitted to a tertiary level PICU of a teaching and referral hospital between January 2009 and May 2018 were analysed retrospectively. In-hospital mortality was the primary outcome. Variables between survivors and non-survivors were compared to determine predictors of mortality.
Results: The median (IQR) age of subjects was 6 (2.25, 70) months. Common clinical features were altered sensorium (n = 87, 82.9%), seizures (n = 73, 69.5%), pallor (n = 66, 62.9%) and bulging anterior fontanelle (n = 52, 49.5%). Median (IQR) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at admission was 10 (6, 13) with herniation noted in 27 (25.7%) children. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM) were the most common etiology for bleeding among infants and older children respectively. The most common site of bleeding was intracerebral (n = 47, 44.8%) followed by subdural (n = 26; 24.8%). Sixteen (15.2%) children died during hospital stay. On univariate analysis, GCS < 8, Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM III) > 20, need for intubation, thiopentone coma for refractory intracranial pressure (ICP) and progression to shock and acute kidney injury (AKI) predicted mortality. Seizures were favourably associated with survival. Age, site of bleeding, etiology or type of management for raised ICP (conservative versus decompressive craniectomy) did not affect the outcome. On multivariable analysis, progression to AKI (OR 5.86; 95% CI, 1.53-22.4; p 0.01) predicted poor outcome. Seizures, however, were associated with better odds for survival (OR 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.47; p 0.002).
Conclusions: VKDB and AVM were the common etiologies among infants and older children respectively. Age, site, etiology of bleeding and type of management did not affect outcome. Severe decompensation at presentation, thiopentone for refractory ICP and progression to multiorgan dysfunction determined mortality.