Ultra-Processed Diets Cause Excess Calorie Intake and Weight Gain: An Inpatient Randomized Controlled Trial of Ad Libitum Food Intake.

Authors:
Kevin D Hall
Kevin D Hall
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
United States
Robert Brychta
Robert Brychta
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Hongyi Cai
Hongyi Cai
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
United States
Kong Y Chen
Kong Y Chen
National Institutes of Health
United States
Stephanie T Chung
Stephanie T Chung
University of West Indies
Elise Costa
Elise Costa
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Cell Metab 2019 May 16. Epub 2019 May 16.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We investigated whether ultra-processed foods affect energy intake in 20 weight-stable adults, aged (mean ± SE) 31.2 ± 1.6 years and BMI = 27 ± 1.5 kg/m. Subjects were admitted to the NIH Clinical Center and randomized to receive either ultra-processed or unprocessed diets for 2 weeks immediately followed by the alternate diet for 2 weeks. Meals were designed to be matched for presented calories, energy density, macronutrients, sugar, sodium, and fiber. Subjects were instructed to consume as much or as little as desired. Energy intake was greater during the ultra-processed diet (508 ± 106 kcal/day; p = 0.0001), with increased consumption of carbohydrate (280 ± 54 kcal/day; p < 0.0001) and fat (230 ± 53 kcal/day; p = 0.0004), but not protein (-2 ± 12 kcal/day; p = 0.85). Weight changes were highly correlated with energy intake (r = 0.8, p < 0.0001), with participants gaining 0.9 ± 0.3 kg (p = 0.009) during the ultra-processed diet and losing 0.9 ± 0.3 kg (p = 0.007) during the unprocessed diet. Limiting consumption of ultra-processed foods may be an effective strategy for obesity prevention and treatment.

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Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15504131193024
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.05.008DOI Listing
May 2019
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