Background: Melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye in adults. While the epidemiology of uveal melanoma has recently been described in Canada, little is known about the epidemiology and geographic distribution of patients with conjunctival melanoma (CM) in Canada.Methods: We conducted a population-based study of CM incidence across all Canadian provinces and territories during 1992-2010 using two independent population-based registries. Results: 190 patients were diagnosed with CM in Canada from 1992 to 2010. 55.3 % of these patients were men. The mean annual incidence rate of CM in Canada was 0.32 cases per million individuals (0.35 and 0.29 cases per million individuals for men and women, respectively). The incidence rates for Canadian provinces demonstrated that the eastern provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had higher age-adjusted incidence rates than the national average, with rates of 0.52 and 0.47 cases per million individuals per year, respectively.Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates novel variations in CM incidence rates between different Canadian provinces. These results taken together with the data reported from the USA confirm the North-to-South geographic gradient of increasing CM incidence. This research highlights that the epidemiology of CM in North America is comparable to that of cutaneous malignant melanoma in contrast to the trends for uveal melanoma distribution.