Get 20% Off Journals at

One ring to bind them - Cohesin's interaction with chromatin fibers.

Essays Biochem 2019 04 23;63(1):167-176. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

In the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, the genetic information is organized at several levels. First, the DNA is wound around the histone proteins, to form a structure termed as chromatin fiber. This fiber is then arranged into chromatin loops that can cluster together and form higher order structures. This packaging of chromatin provides on one side compaction but also functional compartmentalization. The cohesin complex is a multifunctional ring-shaped multiprotein complex that organizes the chromatin fiber to establish functional domains important for transcriptional regulation, help with DNA damage repair, and ascertain stable inheritance of the genome during cell division. Our current model for cohesin function suggests that cohesin tethers chromatin strands by topologically entrapping them within its ring. To achieve this, cohesin's association with chromatin needs to be very precisely regulated in timing and position on the chromatin strand. Here we will review the current insight in when and where cohesin associates with chromatin and which factors regulate this. Further, we will discuss the latest insights into where and how the cohesin ring opens to embrace chromatin and also the current knowledge about the 'exit gates' when cohesin is released from chromatin.

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2019
Save 15% Survey

Similar Publications

Full-length annotation with multistrategy RNA-seq uncovers transcriptional regulation of lncRNAs in cotton.

Plant Physiol 2021 Feb;185(1):179-195

College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430000, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial factors during plant development and environmental responses. To build an accurate atlas of lncRNAs in the diploid cotton Gossypium arboreum, we combined Isoform-sequencing, strand-specific RNA-seq (ssRNA-seq), and cap analysis gene expression (CAGE-seq) with PolyA-seq and compiled a pipeline named plant full-length lncRNA to integrate multi-strategy RNA-seq data. In total, 9,240 lncRNAs from 21 tissue samples were identified. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS2 regulates cellulose biosynthesis in seed coat mucilage by activating CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5.

Plant Physiol 2021 Feb;185(1):77-93

Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, PR China.

Numerous proteins involved in cellulose biosynthesis and assembly have been functionally characterized. Nevertheless, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of the genes that encode these proteins. Here, we report that HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS2 (HDG2), a Homeobox-Leucine Zipper IV transcription factor, regulates cellulose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Spin1z induces the male pathway in the chicken by down-regulating Tcf4.

Gene 2021 Feb 22:145521. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Breeding Reproduction and Molecular Design for Jiangsu Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China. Electronic address:

SPINDLIN1-Z (SPIN1Z), a member of the Spin/Ssty(Y-linked spermiogenesis specific transcript) protein family, participates in the early embryonic development process. Our previous RNA-seq analysis indicates that the level of Spin1z was abundantly expressed in male embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primitive germ cells (PGCs), we speculate that Spin1z may play an important role in chicken male differentiation. Therefore, the loss- and gain-of-function experiments provide solid evidence that Spin1z is both necessary and sufficient to initiate male development in chicken. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

A unique histone 3 lysine 14 chromatin signature underlies tissue-specific gene regulation.

Mol Cell 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Organismal development and cell differentiation critically depend on chromatin state transitions. However, certain developmentally regulated genes lack histone 3 lysine 9 and 27 acetylation (H3K9ac and H3K27ac, respectively) and histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation, histone modifications common to most active genes. Here we describe a chromatin state featuring unique histone 3 lysine 14 acetylation (H3K14ac) peaks in key tissue-specific genes in Drosophila and human cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Super enhancer-mediated transcription of miR146a-5p drives M2 polarization during Leishmania donovani infection.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Feb 25;17(2):e1009343. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India.

The outcome of Leishmania donovani infection depends upon the dynamic interchanges between M1 and M2 macrophages. Information of the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) and epigenetic modifiers in regulating macrophage plasticity during L. donovani infection is still elusive. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021