Rationale: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a form of acute and usually reversible heart failure syndrome. Transient left ventricular dysfunction and electrocardiographic changes could mimic acute coronary syndrome but there are actually no obstructive coronary lesions.
Patient Concerns: A 76-year-old woman with chronic lung disease developed spontaneous tension pneumothorax with the presentation of severe dyspnea, respiratory failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and anterior wall ST-segment elevation on 12-lead electrocardiogram. Acute coronary syndrome was excluded by normal coronary angiograms.
Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed as tension pneumothorax complicated by TTS.
Interventions: The woman underwent tubal thoracostomy for tension pneumothorax-induced obstructive shock. However, the patient further underwent ligation bullectomy for persistent air leakage 2 weeks later.
Outcomes: The left ventricular dysfunction recovered 1 week after resolution of tension pneumothorax. Anterior wall ST-segment elevation resolved 25 days after admission.
Lessons: Concurrent electrocardiograms and echocardiographic serial evaluations should be performed to provide more comprehensive information when dealing with tension pneumothorax patients.
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