Cureus 2019 Feb 5;11(2):e4015. Epub 2019 Feb 5.
Ophthalmology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, MYS.
Introduction Ocular syphilis is a sight-threatening condition. It can occur at any stage of syphilis infection, which present either with acute inflammation during the primary, secondary, and early latent stages or with chronic inflammation during tertiary infection, affecting virtually every ocular structure. This study was to report on the clinical presentation of ocular syphilis that presented to eye clinic Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Methodology This was a retrospective study where medical records of ocular syphilis patients who attended eye clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2013 to June 2017 were reviewed. Results A total of 10 patients (13 eyes) with ocular syphilis were identified out of 106 cases that presented with ocular inflammation. The mean age of presentation was 69.8 ± 6.4 years and seven of them (70%) were female. All patients were Malay and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was negative. The ocular manifestations included panuveitis (four eyes, 30.8%), anterior uveitis (two eyes, 15.4%), posterior uveitis (seven eyes, 53.8%) and optic neuritis (two eyes, 15.4%). Seven (53.8%) eyes presented with visual acuity of worse than 6/60, five (38.5%) eyes had visual acuity between 6/15 to 6/60, and one (7.7%) eye had visual acuity of 6/12 or better. Nine patients received an intravenous benzylpenicillin regime and one patient received an intramuscular penicillin injection. Out of 13 eyes affected, 11 (84.6%) eyes had improved visual acuity of at least one Snellen line after treatment. Visual acuity of 6/12 or better increased to four (30.8%) eyes. Conclusions Posterior uveitis was the commonest presentation of ocular syphilis in HIV-negative patients. Early detection and treatment of ocular syphilis can result in resolution of inflammation and improvement of vision.