Exp Mol Pathol 2019 Jun 17;108:173-182. Epub 2019 Apr 17.
Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy & University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA. Electronic address:
Despite the lack of a complete understanding of the disparities involved, prostate cancer (PCa) has both higher incidence and death rates in African American Men (AAM) relative to those of Caucasian American Men (CAM). MHC class I polypeptide related sequence A (MICA) is an innate immunity protein involved in tumor immunoevasion. Due to a lack of reports of race-specific expression of MICA in PCa, we evaluated MICA expression in patients' tumors and in cell lines from a racially diverse origin. Immunohistochemistry was done on a tissue microarray (TMA) with antibodies against MICA. Tumor MICA mRNA was assessed by data mining using Oncomine and PROGeneV2. Surface MICA and release rate of soluble (s) MICA was evaluated in PCa cell lines originally derived from African American (MDA-PCa-2b) or Caucasian (LNCaP and DU-145) PCa patients. Prostate tumor tissue had a 1.7-fold higher MICA expression relative to normal tissue (p < .0001). MICA immunoreactivity in PCa tissue from AAM was 24% lower (p = .002) compared to CAM. Survival analysis revealed a marginal association of low MICA with poor overall survival (OS) (p = .058). By data mining analysis, a 2.9-fold higher level of MICA mRNA was evidenced in tumor compared to normal tissue (p < .0001). Tumors from AAM had 24% lower levels of MICA mRNA compared to tumors from CAM (p = .038), and poor prognosis was found for patients with lower MICA mRNA (p = .028). By flow cytometry analysis, cell fraction positive for surface MICA was of 3% in MDA-PCa-2b cells, 54% in DU-145 cells, and 67% in LNCaP cells (p < .0001). sMICA was detected in DU-145 and LNCaP cells, but was not detected in MDA-PCa-2b cells. Both LNCaP and DU-145 cells were sensitive to cytolysis mediated by Natural killer (NK) cells. MDA-PCa-2b cells, however were between 1.3-fold at 10:1 Effector:Target (E:T) ratio (p < .0001) and 2-fold at 50:1 E:T ratio (p < .0001) more resistant to NK-mediated cytolysis relative to cells from Caucasian origin. These results suggest that MICA expression may be related to the aggressive nature of PCa. Our findings also demonstrate for the first time that there are variations in MICA expression in the context of racial differences. This study establishes a rationale for further investigation of MICA as a potential race-specific prognostic marker in PCa.