Diabetes Ther 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.
Cardiovascular Research Group, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9WU, UK.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recently updated their position statement on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to include additional focus on cardiovascular risk; improved management of risk factors in T1DM is also needed. There are important differences in the pathophysiology of CVD in T1DM and T2DM. Hyperglycaemia appears to have a more profound effect on cardiovascular risk in T1DM than T2DM, and other risk factors appear to cause a synergistic rather than additive effect, so achievement of treatment targets for all recognized risk factors is crucial to reducing cardiovascular risk. Here we discuss the evidence for addressing established cardiovascular risk factors, candidate biomarkers and surrogate measurements, and possible interventions.