J Neurooncol 2019 Jun 19;143(2):187-196. Epub 2019 Apr 19.
Department of Neurology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi, China.
Introduction: Tumour-associated angiogenesis is associated with the malignancy and poor prognosis of glioma. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are present in the majority of lower-grade (WHO grade II and III) and secondary glioblastomas, but their roles in tumour angiogenesis remain unclear.
Methods: Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the cerebral blood flow (CBF) of IDH-mutated glioma was measured and compared with the IDH-wildtype glioma. The densities of microvessels in IDH-mutated and wildtype astrocytoma and glioblastoma were assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with CD34, and the pericytes were labelled with α-smooth muscle antigen (α-SMA), neural-glial antigen 2 (NG2) and PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β), respectively. Furthermore, glia-specific mutant IDH1 knock-in mice were generated to evaluate the roles of mutant IDH1 on brain vascular architectures. The transcriptions of the angiogenesis-related genes were assessed in TCGA datasets, including ANGPT1, PDGFB and VEGFA. The expressions of these genes were further determined by western blot in U87-MG cells expressing a mutant IDH1 or treated with 2-HG.
Results: The MRI results indicated that CBF was reduced in the IDH-mutated gliomas. The IHC staining showed that the pericyte coverages of microvessels were significantly decreased, but the microvessel densities (MVDs) were only slightly decreased in IDH-mutated glioma. The mutant IDH1 knock-in also impeded the pericyte coverage of brain microvessels in mice. Moreover, the TCGA database showed the mRNA levels of angiogenesis factors, including ANGPT1, PDGFB and VEGFA, were downregulated, and their promoters were also highly hyper-methylated in IDH-mutated gliomas. In addition, both mutant IDH1 and D-2-HG could downregulate the expression of these genes in U87-MG cells.
Conclusions: Our results suggested that IDH mutations could reduce the pericyte coverage of microvessels in astrocytic tumours by inhibiting the expression of angiogenesis factors. As vascular pericytes play an essential role in maintaining functional blood vessels to support tumour growth, our findings imply a potential avenue of therapeutic strategy for IDH-mutated gliomas.
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