Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Apr 16;115:108873. Epub 2019 Apr 16.
Northeast Biotechnology Network (RENORBIO), Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, Piauí, 64049-550, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, Piauí, 64049-550, Brazil.
Gingerol - -gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone; -G) - is a phenolic compound with several pharmacological properties. Herein, the aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicogenic effects of -G on Artemia salina nauplii, Allium cepa, HL-60 cell line and Sarcoma 180 (S-180) ascitic fluid cells.For toxic and genotoxic analysis, it was used -G concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg mL-1. For cytotoxic evaluation using the MTT test (3- [4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), serial -G dilutions (1.56-100 μg mL-1) were performed, and S-180, HL-60 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated for 72 h. The IC50 of -G were 1.14, 5.73 and 11.18 μg mL-1 for HL-60, S-180 and PBMC, respectively, indicating a possible selectivity against tumor cell lines. At higher concentrations (>10 μg mL), toxicity and genotoxicity were observed in the A. cepa test, especially at 40 μg mL. Mechanisms indicating apoptosis, such as toxicity, cytotoxicity and nuclear abnormalities (bridges, fragments, delays, loose chromosomes and micronuclei) suggest that -G has potential for antitumor pharmaceutical formulations.