Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Aug 16;178:146-158. Epub 2019 Apr 16.
DAFNAE, University of Padova, Viale Università 16, 30520 Legnaro, PD, Italy.
Animal manure or bio-solids used as fertilizers are the main routes of antibiotic exposure in the agricultural land, which can have immense detrimental effects on plants. Sulfadiazine (SDZ), belonging to the class of sulfonamides, is one of the most detected antibiotics in the agricultural soil. In this study, the effect of SDZ on the growth, changes in antioxidant metabolite content and enzyme activities related to oxidative stress were analysed. Moreover, the proteome alterations in Arabidopsis thaliana roots in response to SDZ was examined by means of a combined iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomics approach. A dose-dependent decrease in leaf biomass and root length was evidenced in response to SDZ. Increased malondialdehyde content at higher concentration (2 μM) of SDZ indicated increased lipid peroxidation and suggest the induction of oxidative stress. Glutathione levels were significantly higher compared to control, whereas there was no increase in ascorbate content or the enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism, even at higher concentrations. In total, 48 differentially abundant proteins related to stress/stimuli response followed by transcription and translation, metabolism, transport and other functions were identified. Several proteins related to oxidative, dehydration, salinity and heavy metal stresses were represented. Upregulation of peroxidases was validated with total peroxidase activity. Pathway analysis provided an indication of increased phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Probable molecular mechanisms altered in response to SDZ are highlighted.