Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 16;89:687-700. Epub 2019 Apr 16.
Department of Herbal and Environmental Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur, 613 005, Tamil Nadu, India.
Administration of probiotic, prebiotic or symbiotic supplemented diets boosts the antioxidant property, pro and/or anti-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription, innate-adaptive immunity, growth rate and feed digestibility with very low or no mortality in healthy and infected (both groups) in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The probiotic diet increased the white blood cell (WBC) count and globulin (GB) level significantly on or after 6th week whereas with the symbiotic diet the increase was noted two weeks earlier in both groups; the total protein (TP) level also increased significantly when fed with probiotic diet on weeks 6 and 8, whereas with symbiotic diet the significant increase manifested earlier at 4th week itself. The serum phagocytic activity (PA), respiratory burst activity (RBA), complement C3 (CC3) level, alternative complement pathway (ACP), lysozyme activity (LA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels in head kidney (HK) leucocytes increased significantly (P < 0.05) in both groups fed with probiotic diet on weeks 6 and 8; with symbiotic diet from weeks 2-8; but with prebiotic diet only on 8th week. With probiotic diet the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly (P < 0.05) on weeks 6 and 8; with symbiotic diet from weeks 4-8 but the prebiotics diet only on 8th week. However, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity increased significantly (P < 0.05) with probiotic diet on weeks 6 and 8 and with symbiotic diet from weeks 4-8. When healthy fish fed with any supplementation diet for a period of 30 days there was no mortality while 5%, 10%, and 10% mortality was observed in infected group fed with symbiotic, probiotic, and prebiotic supplementation diets. In head kidney (HK) leucocytes, the IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and NF-κB gene transcriptions were significantly up-regulation in both groups when fed with probiotic diet on weeks 6 and 8, symbiotic diet from weeks 4-8 while the prebiotic diet only on 8th week. The iNOS expression was up-regulation significantly in both groups fed with probiotic and symbiotic diets on weeks 6 and 8; however, with any diet, the relative IL-10 and TGF-β gene expressions were down-regulated. The present study suggested that dietary administration of symbiotic diet elicited earlier antioxidant activity, innate-adaptive immune response, immune related cytokine gene modulation, and disease protection earlier i.e. on 4th week than with probiotic or prebiotic diets in L. rohita against A. hydrophila.
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