Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2019 Jun 16;1865(6):1701-1712. Epub 2019 Apr 16.
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, PR China. Electronic address:
Exaggerated endothelial pro-inflammatory response is a hallmark in the early stage of sepsis and contributes to the subsequent tissue injury and organ failure. The anti-inflammatory effects of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator metformin in sepsis has been revealed. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. In the present study, the potential roles of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) in the effects of metformin on endothelial pro-inflammatory responses were investigated. The results showed that metformin pretreatment increased the phosphorylation of HDAC5 at serine 498, leading to the upregulation of KLF2, and eliminated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor ⍺ (TNF⍺)-induced upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1). Furthermore, the adhesion of HL60 leukocytes to endothelial monolayer was effectively inhibited by metformin. In addition, the in vivo data confirmed that AMPK activation attenuated local and systemic inflammation in endotoxic mice induced by LPS via mediating phosphorylating HDAC5 and restoring KLF2 expression. Our findings revealed that AMPK activation-mediated HDAC5 phosphorylation and KLF2 restoration is, at least partially, responsible to the anti-inflammatory effects of metformin in endotoxemia-induced endothelial cells, which has important implications for the future development of interfering therapies of sepsis.