PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215605. Epub 2019 Apr 19.
Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America.
Recombinant herpesvirus vaccine vectors offer distinct advantages in next-generation vaccine development, primarily due to the ability to establish persistent infections to provide sustainable antigen responses in the host. Recombinant bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4) has been previously shown to elicit protective immunity in model laboratory animal species against a variety of pathogens. For the first time, we describe the induction of antigen-specific immune responses to two delivered antigens in the host species after intranasal nebulization of recombinant BoHV-4 expressing the chimeric peptide containing the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) glycoprotein E2 and the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein D (BoHV-4-A-CMV-IgK-gE2gD-TM). In this study, four cattle were immunized via intranasal nebulization with the recombinant BoHV-4 construct. Two of the cattle were previously infected with wild-type BoHV-4, and both developed detectable serologic responses to BVDV and BoHV-1. All four immunized cattle developed detectable viral neutralizing antibody responses to BVDV, and one steer developed a transient viral neutralizing response to BoHV-1. Approximately one year after immunization, immunosuppressive doses of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone were administered intravenously to all four cattle. Within two weeks of immunosuppression, all animals developed viral neutralizing antibody responses to BoHV-1, and all animals maintained BVDV viral neutralizing capacity. Overall, nebulization of BoHV-4-A-CMV-IgK-gE2gD-TM persistently infects cattle, is capable of eliciting antigen-specific immunity following immunization, including in the presence of pre-existing BoHV-4 immunity, and recrudescence of the virus boosts the immune response to BoHV-4-vectored antigens. These results indicate that BoHV-4 is a viable and attractive vaccine delivery platform for use in cattle.