PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215866. Epub 2019 Apr 19.
Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) may predict an increased risk of an adverse cardiometabolic profile later in life, but long-term effects in different populations and birth weight strata are still unclear. We explored laboratory markers of cardiometabolic risk in children born with marginally LBW (2000-2500 g).
Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study including 285 Swedish marginally LBW children and 95 normal birth weight (NBW, 2501-4500 g) controls. At 3.5 and 7 years of age, blood samples for glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were assessed and compared between the groups.
Results: No significant differences in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP or blood lipids were observed between marginally LBW and NBW children. At 7 years there was a higher proportion of marginally LBW children with elevated levels of insulin, defined as above the 90th percentile of the control group (21% vs 8.6%, p = 0.038). This association was, however, confounded by maternal ethnicity. In marginally LBW children born small for gestational age (SGA), mean fasting glucose was significantly higher compared to controls (4.7 vs 4.5 mmol/L, p = 0.020).
Conclusions: There were no significant differences in insulin, insulin resistance, hs-CRP or blood lipids between the marginally LBW children and controls. The subgroup of marginally LBW children born SGA may present early signs of glucose imbalance already at school age.