PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215079. Epub 2019 Apr 19.
South African Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Introduction: The prevalence of HIV infection in South African pregnant women has been approximately 30% over the past decade; however, there has been a steady decline in mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 8% in 2008 to <2% in 2015. We evaluated the immunogenicity of live-attenuated trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) following the primary vaccination series (doses at birth, 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age) in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU), HIV-infected infants initiated on early anti-retroviral treatment (HIV+/ART+), HIV-infected infants on deferred ART (HIV+/ART-) and HIV-unexposed infants (HU) as the referent group.
Methods: Serum polio neutralization antibody titres were evaluated to serotype-1, serotype-2 and serotype-3 at 6, 10 and 18 weeks of age. Antibody titres ≥8 were considered seropositive and sero-protective.
Results: At 18 weeks of age, following the complete primary series of four OPV doses, no differences in GMTs, percentage of infants with sero-protective titres and median fold change in antibody titre (18 weeks vs 6 weeks) were observed in HEU infants (n = 114) and HIV+/ART+ infants (n = 162) compared to HU infants (n = 104) for the three polio serotypes. However, comparing HIV+/ART- infants (n = 70) to HU infants at 18 weeks of age, we observed significantly lower GMTs for serotype-1 (p = 0.022), serotype-2 (p<0.001) and serotype-3 (p<0.001), significantly lower percentages of infants with sero-protective titres for the three serotypes (p<0.001), and significantly lower median fold change in antibody titre for serotype-1 (p = 0.048), serotype-2 (p = 0.003) and serotype-3 (p = 0.008).
Conclusion: Delaying initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants was associated with an attenuated immune response to OPV following a four-dose primary series of vaccines, whereas immune responses to OPV in HIV-infected children initiated on ART early in infancy and HEU children were similar to HU infants.