Genome-wide diversity and demographic dynamics of Cameroon goats and their divergence from east African, north African, and Asian conspecifics.

Authors:
Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, PhD
Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, PhD
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, SLU
Post Doctoral Researcher
Genetics and Genomics
Uppsala | Sweden
Raphael Mrode
Raphael Mrode
International Livestock Research Institute
Addis Ababa | Ethiopia
Zewdu Edea
Zewdu Edea
Ethiopia. ; Chungbuk National University
Bin Liu
Bin Liu
National University of Singapore
Singapore | Singapore
Wenguang Zhang
Wenguang Zhang
University of Nebraska Medical Center
United States
Okeyo Ally Mwai
Okeyo Ally Mwai
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Addis Ababa | Ethiopia

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0214843. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub, Nairobi, Kenya.

Indigenous goats make significant contributions to Cameroon's national and local economy, but little effort has been devoted to identifying the populations. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity and demographic dynamics of Cameroon goat populations using mitochondrial DNA (two populations) and autosomal markers (four populations) generated with the Caprine 50K SNP chip. To infer genetic relationships at continental and global level, genotype data on six goat populations from Ethiopia and one population each from Egypt, Morocco, Iran, and China were included in the analysis. The mtDNA analysis revealed 83 haplotypes, all belonging to haplogroup A, in Cameroon goats. Four haplotypes were shared between goats found in Cameroon, Mozambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Ethiopia. Analysis of autosomal SNPs in Cameroon goats revealed the lowest HO (0.335±0.13) and HE (0.352±0.15) in the North-west Highland and Central Highland populations, respectively. Overall, the highest HO (0.401±0.12) and HE (0.422±0.12) were found for Barki and Iranian goats, respectively. Barki goats had the highest average MAF, while Central Highland Cameroon goats had the lowest. Overall, Cameroon goats demonstrated high FIS. AMOVA revealed that 13.29% of the variation was explained by genetic differences between the six population groups. Low average FST (0.01) suggests intermixing among Cameroon goats. All measures indicated that Cameroon goats are closer to Moroccan goats than to other goat populations. PCA and STRUCTURE analyses poorly differentiated the Cameroon goats, as did genetic distance, Neighbor-Net network, and neighbor-joining tree analyses. The haplotype analysis of mtDNA showed the initial dispersion of goats to Cameroon and central Africa from north-east Africa following the Nile Delta. Whereas, the approximate Bayesian computation indicated Cameroon goats were separated from Moroccan goats after 506 generations in later times (~1518 YA), as supported by the phylogenetic net-work and admixture outputs. Overall, indigenous goats in Cameroon show weak phylogenetic structure, suggesting either extensive intermixing.

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214843PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474588PMC
April 2019
4 Reads
3.234 Impact Factor

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