Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2019 ;29(1):77-84
Foundation University Medical College, Foundation University Islamabad, DHA-I Islamabad (44000), Pakistan.
The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa was the largest of its kind with 11,000 deaths and approximately 28,637 affected cases. The aim of the study was to analyze the global situation after the Ebola outbreak including Ebola complications, vaccine development, lessons learned, financial losses, and disease preparedness. We searched in PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar by using keywords Ebola virus, Ebola vaccine development and Ebola virus transmission, the world after Ebola, financial losses by Ebola outbreak, and disease preparedness. Ebola virus disease is a complex disorder associated with gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological complications. Ebola virus persisted in the semen of male infected patients for 470 to 565 days, and the chances of viral transmission by sexual contacts remained high even after patient recovery. There are several reports of extreme socioneuropsychological disorders in Ebola survivors and Ebola healthcare workers. There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved drug or vaccine for Ebola. Many research groups are working to develop a vaccine against Ebola by using different biotechnology techniques. Some vaccine candidates, including replicating vesicular stomatitis virus and Chimpanzee adenovirus-3, have entered phase III clinical trials and are expected to receive clinical licensing in coming years. The West African Ebola epidemic caused a financial loss of $6 billion in Africa and an additional global economic loss of more than $12 billion. After the Ebola epidemic, four global commissions were established for disease preparedness. A proposition was also forwarded to the World Health Organization for the establishment of the Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response for the disease management. The devastating Ebola epidemic opened the window for disease preparedness to face any future disease epidemic.