Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 30. Epub 2019 Apr 30.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences , 4770 Buford Hwy , Atlanta Georgia 30341 , United States.
Eleven polybrominated diphenyl ether (tri- to deca-BDE) congeners and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB153) have been measured in pooled serum samples from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for one decade (from survey years 2005/06 through 2013/14). The pools, which are representative of the general noninstitutionalized population of the United States, encompassed thirty-two demographic groups defined by sex, race/ethnicity (Mexican American, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and all other race/ethnicities), and age (12-19, >20-39, >40-59, and ≥60 years). The adjusted geometric means were determined in a multiple linear regression model for the six congeners (BDE28, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100, BDE153, and BB153) with detectable concentrations in at least 60% of pools in each of the thirty-two demographic groups; the level of significance for all statistical comparisons thereof were determined. BDE154 and BDE209 were detected in 60% of the NHANES 2011/12 and 2013/14 pools; only these two survey periods were evaluated for these congeners. The percent change in concentration by a 2-year survey period was calculated. All examined PBDEs reported in five survey periods decreased in concentration, except BDE153, for which concentrations increased by 12.0% (95% CI 7.1-16.4) and 8.4% (95% CI 2.9-14.1) for the age groups 40-59 and ≥60 years, respectively; no significant change was observed in younger age groups. Excluding BDE153, we observed larger percentage decreases by a 2-year survey period for the age groups 12-19, 20-39, and ≥60 years compared with the age group 40-59 years. The percentage decrease by a two-year survey period ranged between -19.6% (BDE99, 20-39 years old) and -4.5% (BDE100, 40-59 years old). Although five polybrominated diphenyl ether (PDBE) congeners and BB153 are still frequently detected in the U.S. general population, PBDE concentrations have decreased since 2005-2006, likely, because of changes in manufacturing practices that started in the mid-2000s.