Application of activated carbon from banana stem waste for removal of heavy metal ions in greywater using a Box-Behnken design approach.

Authors:
Sarva Mangala Praveena
Sarva Mangala Praveena
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Malaysia
Umer Rashid
Umer Rashid
University of Agriculture
Pakistan

Environ Technol 2019 Apr 19:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

c Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering , Universiti Putra Malaysia , UPM Serdang , Malaysia.

There is limited information on the optimal processes to remove heavy metals in greywater. A Response Surface Methodology (RSM) via the Box-Behnken Design (BBD) approach was applied in this study to investigate and optimise the process variables of activation time (1.5-2.5 h), impregnation ratio (0.25-0.75) and zinc chloride (ZnCl) percentage (20-60%) for the removal of heavy metal ions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni) associated with greywater treatment. The quadratic model was chosen to describe the effects of the process variables (activation time, impregnation ratio, ZnCl2 percentage) on predicting the responses (heavy metal ions removal) with low p-values (<.0001), high-adjusted R and predicted R values. Second order polynomial equations, ANOVA and three-dimensional surface plots were developed to evaluate the effects of each independent process variable and determine the optimal condition of each factor for heavy metal ions removal. The optimal activation time for the activated carbon variables was 1.8 h, with 56% ZnCl and 0.60 impregnation ratio. This showed that the observed values for removing the heavy metal ions (Cu, Cd, Pb and Ni) were close to the predicted values. A RSM-based field test via the BBD approach, involving different types of greywater samples (bathtubs, showers, hand basins and laundry machines) showed that the percentages of heavy metal ions removal fit the experimental results.

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Source
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09593330.2019.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2019.1609590DOI Listing
April 2019
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References

(Supplied by CrossRef)
Article in J King Saud Univ – Eng Sci
Abdel-Kader AM. et al.
J King Saud Univ – Eng Sci 2013

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