Eur J Immunol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1, Canada.
There is a close association between inflammation and sterile injury, however not all sterile injuries are the same. While a regulated inflammatory response is crucial for proper healing, a dysregulated or nonterminating response leads to disrepair. While immune cells are thought to contribute to the disrepair, they may also be critical for proper healing and as such, their actions may dictate the end result. In all forms of sterile injury, release of damage-associated molecular patterns from necrotic cells causes robust recruitment of innate immune cells. The subsequent release of toxic mediators from immune cells is thought to be damaging in non-resolving sterile injuries in which the dysregulated immune response leads to chronic inflammatory disease. While similar mediators may be released from immune cells in resolution of acute injury, the spatial localization, timing, and self-termination may all be critical. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the temporal and spatial recruitment of various innate immune cells that beget appropriate healing of acute injuries. Where possible we try to compare this appropriate response to dysregulated sterile injuries in an attempt to identify novel therapeutic targets.