Standalone Instrumented Posterior Approach Used as Universal Approach for Tuberculosis Spondylodiscitis.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):225-233

Department of Neurosurgery, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Background: Surgical management of spinal tuberculosis (TB) has been classically the anterior, then combined, and of late increasingly by the posterior approach. The posterior approach has been successful in early disease. There has been a paradigm shift and inquisitive to explore this approach in the more advanced and even long-segment disease. Our study is a retrospective analysis by authors in variable disease pattern of TB Spine operated at an institute using a single posterior approach.

Settings And Design: A retrospective case study series in a tertiary level hospital.

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional and radiological results of an all posterior instrumented approach used as a "universal approach" in tubercular spondylodiscitis of variable presentation.

Materials And Methods: The study is from January 2015 to May 2018. Twenty-four of 38 patients met the inclusion criterion with a male: female = 8:16, and mean age 44.26 years. The initial diagnosis of TB was based on clinic-radiologic basis. Their level of affection, number of vertebrae affected, and vertebral body collapse, the kyphosis (preoperative, predicted, postoperative, and final residual) and bony fusion were measured in the preoperative, postoperative, and final X rays. Functional scoring regarding visual analog scale and Frankel neurology grading was done at presentation and follow-up of patients. Histopathological data of all patients were collected and anti-tubercular therapy completed for a period of 1 year with 4 drugs (HRZE) for 2 months and 2 drugs (HR) for rest of period.

Statistical Analysis Used: The descriptive data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and other parameters were calculated using the appropriate statistical tests such as the Student paired -test for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, visual analog scale score, and kyphosis.

Results: The mean number of vertebrae involved was 3.29 ± 0.86 (2-6) with mean vertebral body destruction was 0.616. Preoperatively, the mean kyphosis angle was 22.42° ± 12.56° and was corrected postoperatively to 13.08° ± 11.34° with an average correction of 9.34° (41.66%). At the latest follow-up, there was mean loss of correction of 0.80° resulting in 13.88° of final correction. Bony fusion was achieved in 20 patients (83.33%) cases. Neurological recovery occurred in all patients (100%), and 92% could be ambulatory at 1 year follow-up. There was improvement of visual analog scale from 6.33 ± 1.05 preoperatively to 1.042 ± 0.75 at 3 months of postoperative period. Two patients had bed sore, two had urinary infection, and one had neurological worsening requiring re exploration and cage removal eventually recovering to Frankel E. Two patients died due to unrelated cause.

Conclusions: The procedure in safe and has satisfactory results in variable group affection of Pott's spine including early and late disease, multisegment involvement using pedicle screw fixation with/without cage support.

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April 2019
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