Am J Infect Control 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.
Department of Anatomy, Topographical Anatomy, and Operative Surgery, Private Higher Educational Establishment "Kyiv Medical University," Kyiv, Ukraine.
Background: The aim of this study was to obtain the first national estimates of the current prevalence and incidence and death of health care-associated infections (HAIs) of all types in acute care hospitals in Ukraine.
Methods: Prospective surveillance was conducted from January 2014 to December 2016 in 17 hospitals. Surveillance case definitions were derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network HAI case definitions. The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultures were determined using a automated microbiology analyzer. Some antimicrobial susceptibility tests used Kirby-Bauer antibiotic testing.
Results: Of 97,340 patients, 10,986 (11.3%) HAIs were observed. The most frequently reported HAI types were surgical site infections (60%), respiratory tract infections (pneumonia and lower respiratory tract, 18.4%), bloodstream infections (10.2%), and urinary tract infections (9.5%). Death during hospitalization was reported in 9.7% of HAI cases. The most common organism reported was Escherichia coli, accounting for 21.8% of all organisms, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (18.4%), Enterococcus spp (15.7%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.4%). Antimicrobial resistance among the isolates associated with HAIs showed that 42.1% and 3.6% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp isolates were β-lactam (oxacillin)- and glycopeptide (teicoplanin)-resistant, respectively. Meticillin resistance was reported in 39.2% of S aureus isolates.
Conclusions: HAIs and increasing antimicrobial resistance present a significant burden to the Ukraine hospital system. Infection control priorities in hospitals should include preventing surgical site infections, respiratory tract infections (which also include PNEU and LRTI), bloodstream infections, and urinary tract infections, as well preventing infections due to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.