Ital J Pediatr 2019 Apr 18;45(1):50. Epub 2019 Apr 18.
Department of Women's Health, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No.1 Xueshi Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310006, People's Republic of China.
Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are some of the most common birth defects affecting newborns. CAKUTs often have poor birth outcomes owing to the limited experience of physicians in developing countries regarding antenatal and postnatal diagnosis. We aimed to estimate the epidemiology of CAKUTs using data from a hospital-based registry in Zhejiang Province, China.
Methods: We included a total of 2790 newborns with CAKUTs, identified among 1,748,038 births during 2010-2016. The prevalence and type of CAKUTs, maternal and neonatal characteristics, and associated malformations were analyzed.
Results: The average prevalence of CAKUTs born to mothers overall and mothers aged ≥35 years were both around 1.60 per 1000 births (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.54-1.66; 95% CI, 1.44-1.83, respectively) during the study period. The prevalence of CAKUTs changed over time among all women and women of advanced maternal age, although no significant trends were observed. CAKUTs were more likely to occur in male than female newborns (odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.38), in multiple births than singletons (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.21-1.92) and in urban areas than rural areas (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18-1.37). The overall prenatal detection rate of CAKUTs was 73.87%. The average gestational age at antenatal diagnosis was 26.57 ± 8.70 weeks. A total 22.69% CAKUTs had associated malformations. Congenital heart defects were the most common anomalies, accounting for 8.89% of the whole population. The main proportion in subgroups was hydronephrosis, representing 31.79% of registered CAKUTs.
Conclusions: There was a nearly twofold increase in the prevalence of CAKUTs from 2010 to 2016 in Zhejiang Province. CAKUTs are strongly associated with male sex, multiple births, urban areas, and other nonurinary congenital malformations.