Molecules 2019 Apr 17;24(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.
The Australian Wine Research Institute, P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.
The impact of oxygen exposure during winemaking on metal ion concentrations in wine were investigated throughout the winemaking process in a Chardonnay wine. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sn, and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Oxygen exposure significantly impacted 13 metal ions at different phases of winemaking. However, only the concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Fe were impacted by early oxygen exposure during pressing, with lower Cr and Cu concentrations in wines that were aerobically pressed and lower concentrations of Fe in wines that were inertly pressed. The sequestering of Al, Cu, Ni, and Zn by wine lees was significantly affected by oxygen treatment, with lees collected from wines that were treated oxidatively sequestering significantly greater amounts of Cu and Zn and removing these metals from the wine supernatant. The metal ion that was most affected by oxygen exposure during pressing and handling was Cu, with significantly lower Cu measured in wines that were produced under oxidative conditions. It is known that elevated Cu concentrations have negative implications for wine aroma and flavour. This study demonstrated that oxygen management during winemaking significantly impacts metal ion concentrations in lees and wine, which may decrease the risk of developing taints and faults.