Advances in the Understanding of Skin Cancer: Ultraviolet Radiation, Mutations, and Antisense Oligonucleotides as Anticancer Drugs.

Molecules 2019 Apr 17;24(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea.

Skin cancer has always been and remains the leader among all tumors in terms of occurrence. One of the main factors responsible for skin cancer, natural and artificial UV radiation, causes the mutations that transform healthy cells into cancer cells. These mutations inactivate apoptosis, an event required to avoid the malignant transformation of healthy cells. Among these deadliest of cancers, melanoma and its 'younger sister', Merkel cell carcinoma, are the most lethal. The heavy toll of skin cancers stems from their rapid progression and the fact that they metastasize easily. Added to this is the difficulty in determining reliable margins when excising tumors and the lack of effective chemotherapy. Possibly the biggest problem posed by skin cancer is reliably detecting the extent to which cancer cells have spread throughout the body. The initial tumor is visible and can be removed, whereas metastases are invisible to the naked eye and much harder to eliminate. In our opinion, antisense oligonucleotides, which can be used in the form of targeted ointments, provide real hope as a treatment that will eliminate cancer cells near the tumor focus both before and after surgery.

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Source
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/8/1516
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514765PMC
April 2019
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References

(Supplied by CrossRef)
Dramatic increase in the incidence and mortality from Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States
Fitzgerald et al.
Am. Surg. 2015

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