J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019 Jun 7;1117:41-48. Epub 2019 Apr 7.
Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark.
Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is one of the vitamin Ks. Several studies have previously investigated the role of vitamin K1 status in respect to disease, but without consistent results. Since vitamin K deficiency has been associated with different disease states it is important to develop a biochemical analysis with sufficient sensitivity and a low limit of quantitation (LOQ). The vitamin Ks are very fat-soluble. This non-polar nature has given rise to several challenges during the method development, because vitamin K1 sticks to materials used during the process and is lost during evaporation. We found that reducing the sample preparation as much as possible offline, instead using online SPE-LC-MS/MS improves recovery and gives satisfactory chromatograms. An Protein BEH C4 column, 300 Å (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) was used as trap column and a Phenyl-Hexyl-LC-column, 100 Å (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm particle size) was used as analytical column. The mobile phases consisted of 30 μmol/L NHF in water and 30 μmol/L NHF in MeOH. A triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source, positive ion mode, was used to perform the mass spectrometric measurements. The method is simple, highly sensitive and fast. The method was validated for vitamin K1 with good analytical performance. With a LOQ of 0.05 nmol/L it is to our knowledge the vitamin K1 method with lowest LOQ reported to date in the literature. It can easily be automated and applied in a routine diagnostic laboratory. Blood collection tubes with different additives were tested and showed no difference. Stability of vitamin K1 in serum was tested at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C and in light and dark at 20 °C over a period of 30 days) and showed that vitamin K1 is light sensitive in serum even after only one day.