Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.
Unidad Clínica de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Microbiología y Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena/Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla/Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Seville, Spain.
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mostly a nosocomial pathogen affecting predisposed patients. However, community-onset bloodstream infections (CO-BSI) caused by this organism are not exceptional.
Objectives: To assess the predisposing factors for CO-BSI due to P. aeruginosa (CO-BSI-PA) and the impact in mortality of inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy.
Data Source: A systematic literature search was performed in the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Study eligibility criteria and participants: Articles published between 1 January 2002 and 31 January 2018 reporting at least of 20 adult patients with CO-BSI due to P. aeruginosa were considered.
Intervention: Empiric antimicrobial therapy for CO-BSI-PA.
Methods: A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted for risk factors and to evaluate if inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy increased mortality in CO-BSI-PA using a Mantel-Haenszel effects model.
Results: Twelve studies assessing data of 1120 patients were included in the systematic review. Solid tumour (33.1%), haematologic malignancy (26.4%), neutropenia (31.7%) and previous antibiotic use (44.8%) were the most prevalent predisposing factors. Septic shock was present in 42.3% of cases, and 30-day crude mortality was 33.8%. Mortality in meta-analysis (four studies) was associated with septic shock at presentation (odds ratio, 22.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.52-141.35; p 0.001) and with inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy (odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.98l p 0.02).
Conclusions: CO-BSI-PA mostly occurred in patients with predisposing factors and had a 30-day mortality comparable to hospital-acquired cases. Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was associated with increased mortality. Appropriate identification of patients at risk for CO-BSI-PA is needed for empirical treatment decisions.