PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215575. Epub 2019 Apr 17.
Nephrology Training Program at Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
Background And Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Our purpose was to understand the genesis of CKD in HIV patients from a large urban clinic in Houston, Texas, USA, and to characterize progression of CKD in the cohort.
Design, Setting, Participants And Measurements: A retrospective cohort study (2012-2016) was conducted in all HIV-infected patients seen in a federally qualified community health center in Houston, Texas. CKD prevalence and its association with HIV viral load and CD4 count were determined. The association of the change in eGFR over time and comorbidities was assessed using linear mixed models.
Results: Of 3714 HIV-infected patients analyzed, 153 (4.1%) had CKD. The prevalence of CKD in the different racial groups was 5.4% White, 4.0% African American, 2.8% Hispanic/Latino and 3.2% Asian. There was no difference in the rate of decline in kidney function in White vs. African American HIV infected patients with CKD. Compared with non-CKD patients, CKD patients were older, had lived longer with HIV infection, had lower CD4 cell counts, higher proportions of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cerebrovascular disease, and had significantly higher rates of eGFR deterioration represented by a median decrease of 26.5% from first to last follow-up eGFR (versus 0% change). Linear mixed modeling identified older age, male gender, White race, longer time with HIV infection, hypertension, history of kidney stones, cerebrovascular disease, autoimmune disease, increased potassium and total cholesterol levels, and being treated with combination ART as associated with a worsening eGFR over time.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates a prevalence of CKD in HIV-infected patients of 4.1% and points to an important role for HIV medications and other common comorbidities in the genesis and progression of kidney disease. Importantly, CKD was not more prevalent in African Americans than in Whites, perhaps due to a low prevalence of IV drug abuse as inferred from the lower prevalence of HCV infection in this cohort.