An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180034. Epub 2019 Apr 8.
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Física, Química e Geológica/PPGOFQG, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Caixa Postal 474, Avenida Itália, Km 8 , Campus Carreiros, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.
Information about euphausiids in central South Atlantic Ocean is scarce; hence, we investigated species composition and distribution of euphausiids along a longitudinal transect in this region, with an emphasis on Thysanopoda. Zooplankton samples were collected from 44 stations during the first Transatlantic Commission (Brazil-Africa). Euphausiids comprised 21,390 individuals across larval stages (nauplius, calyptopis, and furcilia) and adults. Furcilia and adults were classified to species level when possible, with a total of 19 identified species. Overall, Euphausia species frequency of occurrence and abundance were highest in samples collected near the African coast, while Thysanopada species dominated near the Brazilian coast. Of the euphausiids caught, 158 were identified as Thysanopoda, including 2 specimens of T. astylata, 6 T. aequalis, 3 T. pectinata, 2 T. monacantha, 2 T. tricuspida, and 1 T. egregia; 118 damaged specimens could only be identified as Thysanopoda spp., and 24 as T. aequalis / T. astylata complex because of the lack of diagnostic structures. Thysanopada egregia was present in samples collected down to 96 m, which increases the vertical range for this species. This report constitutes the first record of Thysanopoda astylata Brinton, 1975 in Atlantic waters.