Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 30. Epub 2019 Apr 30.
Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Purpose Of Review: We will discuss recent advances in the development of nanoparticle vaccines presenting HIV-1 envelope trimer vaccines and the immunological mechanisms by which they act.
Recent Findings: The multivalent presentation of Env trimers on nanoparticles is a promising strategy to increase Env immunogenicity. Recent studies have shed light on how Env nanoparticles increase lymph node trafficking and germinal center formation by using the lectin-mediated complement pathway and enhancing the interaction with naïve B cells. Meanwhile, research on different nanoparticle platforms has resulted in improved designs, such as liposomes with improved stability, and the emergence of novel platforms such as protein nanoparticles that self-assemble in vitro. Immmunogenicity studies with these nanoparticles delineate the advantages and expose the limitations of the different nanoparticle platforms.
Summary: It is becoming increasingly clear that HIV-1 vaccine research might benefit greatly from using nanoparticles presenting Env trimers, particularly during the priming stage of immunization. Among the different nanoparticles that are being pursued, in vitro-assembling nanoparticles allow for greater control of Env quality making them a promising nanoparticle platform.