Environ Monit Assess 2019 Apr 16;191(5):282. Epub 2019 Apr 16.
Department of Natural Resources, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, 02881, USA.
There is growing interest in generalizing the impact of hydrogeomorphology and weather variables on riparian functions. Here, we used RZ-TRADEOFF to estimate nitrogen, phosphorus, water table (WT) depth, and greenhouse gas (GHG: NO, CO, CH) functions for 80 riparian zones typical of the North American Midwest, Northeast (including Southern Ontario, Canada), and Mid-Atlantic. Sensitivity to weather perturbations was calculated for temperature and precipitation-dependent functions (CO, phosphate concentration, and water table), and multivariate statistical analysis on model outputs was conducted to determine trade-offs between riparian functions. Mean model estimates were 93.10 cm for WT depth, 8.45 mg N L for field edge nitrate concentration, 51.57% for nitrate removal, 0.45 mg PO L for field edge phosphate concentration, 1.5% for subsurface phosphate removal, 91.24% for total overland phosphorus removal, 0.51 mg N m day for NO flux, 5.5 g C m day for CO fluxes, and - 0.41 mg C m day and 621.51 mg C m day for CH fluxes in non-peat sites and peat sites, respectively. Sites in colder climates were most sensitive to weather perturbations for CO, sites with deep water tables estimates had the highest sensitivity for WT, and sites in warm climates and/or with deep confining layers had the lowest sensitivity for phosphate concentration. Slope, confining layer depth, and temperature were the primary characteristics influencing similarities and trade-offs between sites. This research contributes to understanding how to optimize riparian restoration and protection in watersheds based on both water (nitrogen, phosphorus) and air quality (GHG) goals.
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