Chronic Alcohol Drinking Slows Brain Development in Adolescent and Young Adult Nonhuman Primates.

Authors:
Tatiana A Shnitko
Tatiana A Shnitko
Bowles Center for Alcohol Study
Zheng Liu
Zheng Liu
Center for Programmable Materials
United States
Xiaojie Wang
Xiaojie Wang
Northwest A&F University
China
Kathleen A Grant
Kathleen A Grant
Oregon Health and Science University
United States
Christopher D Kroenke
Christopher D Kroenke
Oregon Health and Science University
United States

eNeuro 2019 Mar-Apr;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon 97006.

The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with brain remodeling in the final stages of developmental growth. It is also a period when a large proportion of this age group engages in binge alcohol drinking (occasional consumption of four to five drinks leading to intoxication) and heavy alcohol drinking (binge drinking on ≥5 d in a month). Here we report on magnetic resonance imaging of developmental changes in the brain occurring during late adolescence and early adulthood (3.5-7.5 years of age) in a rhesus macaque model of alcohol self-administration. Monkeys were imaged prior to alcohol exposure, and following ∼6 and ∼12 months of daily (22 h/d) access to ethanol and water. The results revealed that the brain volume increases by 1 ml/1.87 years throughout the late adolescence and early adulthood in controls. Heavy alcohol drinking reduced the rate of brain growth by 0.25 ml/year per 1 g/kg daily ethanol. Cortical volume increased throughout this period with no significant effect of alcohol drinking on the cortical growth rate. In subcortical regions, age-dependent increases in the volumes of globus pallidus, thalamus, brainstem, and cerebellum were observed. Heavy drinking attenuated the growth rate of the thalamus. Thus, developmental brain volume changes in the span of late adolescence to young adulthood in macaques is altered by excessive alcohol, an insult that may be linked to the continuation of heavy drinking throughout later adult life.

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Source
http://eneuro.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/ENEURO.0044-19.2019
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0044-19.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464511PMC
April 2019
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