Behav Neurol 2019 12;2019:7908392. Epub 2019 Mar 12.
Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
Background And Purpose: Recently, several studies indicated the c.14576G>A variant on the ring finger protein 213 (RNF213), a founder variant of moyamoya diseases (MMD), was associated with non-MMD intracranial major artery stenosis/occlusion (non-MMD ICASO). We proposed that RNF213 variant-related ICASO including MMD might be a special entity with its own characteristics based on a genetic background. The aim of the study was to learn the clinical and vascular features of RNF213 variant-related ICASO. Moreover, we tried to explore the clinical significance of a testing variant in ICASO patients in China.
Methods: Clinical material and routine image data were collected in 160 Chinese patients with ICASO, including 41 verified MMD and 119 non-MMD. DNA samples were extracted, and the c.14576G>A variant on RNF213 was genotyped. Then, the clinical and vascular features were compared between the patients with and without a relevant variant. Furthermore, the patients with RNF213 mutation were performed with high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) examination to conclude features of the artery wall.
Results: There were 16 (10%) patients (including 9 MMD and 7 non-MMD ICASO) presenting a heterozygous c.14576G>A variant while none of homozygote was found. Compared to the patients without the c.14576G>A variant, the variant group had more female, less symptomatic patients, and more possibility of having collateral vessels in vascular imaging. In the symptomatic subgroup, there is no significant difference in clinical presentation ( > 0.05) between two groups. However, RNF213 variant-related ICASO had lower scores in NIHSS (1.0 ± 3.0 vs. 3.9 ± 5.0, < 0.05) but not in mRS. In the symptomatic subgroup, in addition, most of the HR-MRI images of variant ICASO (77.8%, 7 of 9) were characterized by a shrunken outer diameter, concentric thickening vessel wall, and collateral vessel structures on the stenotic portion, which was prone to be diagnosed as HR-MMD (a MMD diagnosis diagnosed by HR-MRI). The rest of the two variants showed a relatively eccentric luminal narrow, normal outer diameter without collateral vessel findings, identified as HR-ICAD (intracranial atherosclerotic disease diagnosed by HR-MRI).
Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that the c.14576G>A variant on RNF213 may be a biomarker to good outcome of ICASO in Chinese. The variant-related ICASO was characterized by both features of MMD and ICAD diagnosed by HR-MRI.