Brain organoids: advances, applications and challenges.

Authors:
Xuyu Qian
Xuyu Qian
Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD | United States
Hongjun Song
Hongjun Song
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
United States
Guo-Li Ming
Guo-Li Ming
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
United States

Development 2019 Apr 16;146(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience and Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, Perelman School for Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Brain organoids are self-assembled three-dimensional aggregates generated from pluripotent stem cells with cell types and cytoarchitectures that resemble the embryonic human brain. As such, they have emerged as novel model systems that can be used to investigate human brain development and disorders. Although brain organoids mimic many key features of early human brain development at molecular, cellular, structural and functional levels, some aspects of brain development, such as the formation of distinct cortical neuronal layers, gyrification, and the establishment of complex neuronal circuitry, are not fully recapitulated. Here, we summarize recent advances in the development of brain organoid methodologies and discuss their applications in disease modeling. In addition, we compare current organoid systems to the embryonic human brain, highlighting features that currently can and cannot be recapitulated, and discuss perspectives for advancing current brain organoid technologies to expand their applications.

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Source
http://dev.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/dev.166074
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.166074DOI Listing
April 2019
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