J Pediatr Urol 2019 May 22;15(3):267.e1-267.e5. Epub 2019 Mar 22.
Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.
Introduction: While children with multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK) are predisposed to contralateral kidney (CK) vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), it is unknown if this results in an increased risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). The authors hypothesized that knowledge of VUR via voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) would enable altered practices to prevent UTI and thus reduce the number of febrile urinary tract infections (fUTIs).
Methods: The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all patients at their institution of multiple providers caring for patients with a diagnosis of MCDK from 1/1/07 to 7/14/17. Patients were evaluated for age, sex, circumcision status, race, imaging results on renal ultrasound (RUS) and/or VCUG, occurrence of fUTI, and prophylactic antibiotic (ppx) use.
Results: One hundred sixty-five patients were identified; 70% of patients were diagnosed with MCDK on prenatal imaging. Seventy-seven (47%) patients had a screening VCUG after diagnosis of MCDK. Eighteen patients with VCUG had VUR with 13 (17%) having VUR in the CK. Only children undergoing VCUG were placed on ppx with no difference in the use of ppx in patients with and without dilating VUR (45% vs 43%; p = 0.91). Overall, 11 patients experienced a fUTI. There was no significant difference in fUTI between those children who underwent VCUG compared with those who did not (10% vs 3%; p = 0.07). Use of ppx and presence of CK renal anomaly on RUS had no impact on incidence of subsequent fUTI.
Conclusion: Knowledge of VUR based on VCUG results did not reduce the rate of fUTI or predict ppx use in the practice of multiple providers. The authors feel this confirms the low utility of VCUG in the practical management of otherwise healthy children with MCDK.